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8 Success Factors to Use Business Intelligence

business intelligence, business intelligence systems, intelligence systems, business

Source: Cloud Data Integration Software | Matillion

Introduction  

Business intelligence can be completely transformational if done correctly.  Users can get access to self-service reports which in turn creates a faster and more efficient timetable.  Well-designed data warehouses can reduce errors and possible conflicts in the information found.  All that needs to be done to make sure that this happens is to build a good business intelligence system.   

4 Factors of Successful Business Intelligence   

  1. Don’t Focus on Every Type of Data – Focus on one subject.  Which area would benefit the most from getting better reports?  Work on that area until fully improved, then move onto the next area.  It’ll help to build your reputation among the competition.  It seems like will help to lower your costs and shorten timelines also because of the more streamlined setup. 
  2. Ease of Use – The front end needs to be with no complicated, less understood technical terms.  Along with this creating ease of use, tables help make finding data easier.  And then reports can be built this way if not using self-service options.  In other words, have a search option available so that people can find data through a browser instead of through programming alone.    
  3. High Performance – Try using modern technology when building your business intelligence system.  in-memory analytics, columnar databases, SSD disks and advanced caching will help to speed up your system, therefore making all users happier to do the work. 
  4. Choose Technology Carefully – Don’t just go for the one that’s bundled to what you have already.  Make sure you check out everything and all your options first before deciding to go for the easiest.  Consequently, you might get more bang for your buck and save at the same time. 

4 More Factors to Consider

  1. Understand the Cost – When you see the license it’s really only about 20% of the cost itself.  The other 80% includes hardware, consultancy, and software to run the databases and operating systems in some cases.  It’s not always this way, but it’s something to consider when shopping around. 
  2. Advocates – Who are your domain experts?  They can become your advocates as they really have a full understanding of what your reporting requirements are. They can test the numbers and turn in the reports correctly.  Because of this, they are your best bet for getting the rest of the workers to accept implementing the new system more quickly in the work area. 
  3. Reconcile – You have to make sure that your numbers add up correctly, or you’ll have your users losing faith in you and your company.  Ensure the reconciling of the numbers back to trusted sources in order to make sure everything adds up correctly.  If including calculations allow a way for the user to find out what they mean through something like tool-tips.   
  4. Involving the Executives – Business intelligence works much better with involving executives then not.  Because of this, the executives can make decisions easier and more quickly, along with allocating resources to the right places. 

Summary 

Involving everyone in the process of implementing a new business intelligence system is a priority.  It’s like anywhere else.  It the worker doesn’t see interest in the executives and managers, then they aren’t going to want to work with it either.  Consequently, it could cause you problems in the future and a loss of money.  To deter this from happening, make sure all are on board to support implementing the new system.  Focus on small areas first to improve, then move to other areas.  This will help you to not spread yourself too thin.  Make sure that the system is put into action is easy for everyone to use and is high performance.  Otherwise, people will really hate to work with because it’s too slow.  It won’t be cheap to build either, so make sure you shop around for what you really need instead of what’s there.  If you do this, your business intelligence system could become one of the best.   

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Information Technology Trends 2018 (via comptia)

IT trends, trends, it, IT, information technology, technology

Source: www.comptia.org

Introduction

This has to be one of the most detailed lists of information technology trends for this year from Comptia.  I love Comptia!  It has treated me very well when I take classes in computer systems, programming and such.  Anyways, back on subject.  The trends talked about here are focusing on areas where there are higher expectations in business value, security, transparency and equal access.  

3 Key Points 

  1.  The IT sector projections are that it’s to grow 5% this year 
  1. Evolving tech labor market will create both challenges and opportunities 
  1. There’s a balancing act of incrementations and transformations 

12 Trends of Information Technology to Watch 

1.  Open Source Concepts – Allows more people to create in more inventive ways.

  • Able to build more applications using blockchain, natural language, and context-aware algorithms 
  • Use cases include drones, robotics, and 3D printing 

2.  Cloud Keeps on Growing – Presently for non-critical use. 

  • Moving data on to where companies can store and use any program in the Cloud 
  •  The system is rebuilt to maximize cloud characteristics 
  • Companies have to change policies and workflow which will be more difficult than dealing with implementing the Cloud itself.  Something to consider.

3.  Internet of Things – These types of devices are really making an impact in the business world.  

  • There are many benefits for using these devices, but companies aren’t considering system connectivity and optimization, plus IT responsibilities 

4.  Artificial Intelligence –  This is the one to focus on. 

  • The one most likely to change the IT environment 
  • Requires computational resources which found in the Cloud 
  • Algorithms allowing learning through making new products or services 
  • The contextual awareness which can come from IoT devices or big collections of data  

5.  Cyber Security – Incidents are occurring more and more. 

  •  It has to change to meet the challenges that attackers give them 
  • More and more advanced methods of attack to face down 

6.  IT May No Longer be Given the Benefit of the Doubt – Tech is so pervasive that we don’t know where it begins or ends. 

  • Because of how beneficial tech is to us, when something flops we usually give the benefit of the doubt 
  • Signs are showing that we’re now beginning to hold technology accountable for mistakes that happen unlike before
  • Questions dealing with security, privacy and screen time issues come up all the time now 

7.  Insights Economy – Learning about customers wants and needs. 

  • Machine learning and artificial intelligence are driving this and supporting it 
  • Pattern recognition, predictive analytics, natural language processing, and computer vision is what supports the new insight economy  

8.  Upgrading Digital Expertise in the Boardroom – Got to have people who are tech savvy so they can run things smoothly 

  • Tech initiatives include infrastructure, mobile environments, data, and integrations 
  •  Have to have the feel for the tech landscape in the boardroom 
  • Cybersecurity and data governance will be followed, not just known like before

9.  New Collar Jobs Increasing – How does technology work in different industries? 

  • IoT is making new jobs, new categories of learning and technologists 
  • Learn both hard and soft skills, not just a four-year degree  

10.  Online Marketplaces – Friend or Foe of the Traditional Market 

  • Online stores are changing the market in all sectors 
  • Brick and mortar stores just have to make some changes to keep up, along with looking out for new challenges, but it can be done 

11.  Subscription Prices Harder to Figure Out – How will you price your products and/or services? 

  • Make sure to learn Accounting Standards Codification 606 which came out in December 2017 
  • PSA tools like ConnectWise can possibly help with that

12.  As-A-Service World – That’s the tech landscape in a nutshell.   

  • New technologies are beginning to intrude into the as-a-service world 
  • More and more customers are using as-a-service and expect much from it.  Companies have to make sure that they are really up to date and not just talking.   

Summary 

There are huge changes that are coming and your company needs to keep up or be left.  There are new markets coming to play that can be taken advantage of.  For example, there’s authentication-as-a-service, analytics-as-a-service, artificial-intelligence-as-a-service, drones-as-a-service with many more coming along.  To keep up with all the changes invest in training for new skills, workforce development, and many more areas to be able to take better advantage.  Time to start planning for the future. 

 

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3 Roles for Information Systems in Business

business, business information systems, data, upgrade, competitive advantage

Purpose of Information Systems

Information Systems (IS) are to help you and your company to find new strategies in order to gain competitive advantage in your industry. One way to do this is through adapting IS in your business. IS helps the organization to use its data, reduce workload and assist compliance with mandatory regulations.

3 Roles for IS

Information Storage and Analysis

Companies now use more advanced databases that contain all types of data about what they do. IS can store, update and analyze the information. From all the information that the agency has, they can figure out new solutions to both current and future problems. Information can also be integrated from different sources both in and outside of your company. This allows you to keep the company up to date with both internal performances and external opportunities or threats.

Assist with Making Decisions

Information Systems are all about helping you to make strategic plans for your business. The management team uses the information gathered to create plans and decisions for longevity and making more money. You use IS to measure and test all the information gathered from all sources. The analysis and comparison of market trends helps you to decide if your strategic decisions made are both adequate and are good quality.

Assist with Business Processes

IS helps businesses to create more value based systems for your company. Information Systems are integrated anywhere to measure out where tasks will make that department run better and for less money. Or it can make sure that everyone follows whatever regulations each department needs to follow to stay in compliance with government laws. It both simplifies business processes and gets rid of unneeded activities. They also add controls to employee processes. This in turn makes sure that only the ones who need to know have access to certain tasks. IS gets rid of repetitive tasks, increases accuracy and leads to better project planning and implementation.

Some Considerations

Implementing new systems costs a lot of money. It includes not just the installation but also employee training sessions. Some employees might even resist the changes being brought on. This in turn can hinder your operations and employee turnover could increase. Just make sure to have strong leadership in place when doing this. It will help guide employees and managers through the transition while weighing cost against benefits to see if you would really like to do this.

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Defining IS 4 Primary Functions in Business

IS, IT, business functions, business information system function, information systems, information technology

You can define business by four primary functions: 1) Marketing and Sales, 2) Production 3) Accounting and Finance and 4) Human Resources (HR). It is all about finding ways of supporting your business operations and management.

Marketing and Sales IS

Information systems go towards planning, promoting and selling the products or services. They support decision-making through:

  • Planning
  • Price
  • Place
  • Promotion

This is the entire marketing IS where it has to draw on many sources of results to find information. Completing marketing research helps focus on finding answers supporting decision-making. Marketing subsystems help support decision-making. The decisions are then integrated with the sales forecast and marketing plan, comparing sales results.

The Subsystems

  • Product subsystem – The planning of introductions of new products
  • Place subsystem – Making the product available to the customer at the right place and time
  • Promotion subsystem – Supports both personal selling and advertising
  • Price subsystem – Contain industry prices and help set up pricing goals
  • Sales forecasting – Forecasting and developing a full marketing plan comes with planned marketing and outstanding orders

Components for information systems for accounting include:

  • Accounts receivable
  • Accounts payable
  • Payroll records
  • Inventory control
  • General ledgers

They rely heavily on online databases and reports custom-built. Essential functions of financial systems are:

  • Financial forecasting and planning – Predicting funds coming into and out of your company long-term. Using cash-flow models help find needs of funds locations along with where they’re coming from.
  • Financial control – Budgeting and Return on Investment (ROI)
  • Funds management – Managing liquid assets for high yields with lowest degree of loss risk
  • Internal auditing – Auditing reviews and shows independent appraisals of your accounting, financial, and operational procedures.
  • Human Resources IS support through providing information to the HR office. It has grown immensely over the years to keep up with needs to adapt to new laws and regulations.

Giving access to stakeholders including:

  • Employees of the HR department
  • Personnel of your company wishing to see their records
  • Workers wishing to see open positions and benefit plans
  • People taking computer training classes for work and completing evaluations
  • Managers can rate their subordinates and make decisions
  • Executives creating tactical and strategic planning

Other databases include:

  • Applicant databases
  • Position inventory
  • Skills inventory
  • Benefits databases
  • External databases

Conclusion

As we can see, all these different information systems have to work together smoothly to give superior results for your company. If not, it is bound to disappoint your customers. They expect timely delivery of products and services, perform QA to their own standards and flexible credit terms to name a few. Information systems offer support integrating business processes, cutting across functional lines to do it. In turn it makes everyone happy, from business partners to customers and suppliers.

 

 

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9 BI Software Upgrade Mistakes

BI, upgrading, upgrade, buiness intelligence, business

Types of BI

Business Intelligence (BI) is extremely popular and is a top focus. There is the traditional software, cloud services, mobile apps and social media. What type do you need for your business that will help and not hinder progress? Choosing the wrong software to fix your business problem(s) or having end users who don’t understand the new programming will cause failures.

BI Mistakes

  • Not defining the business problem(s) – Don’t jump the gun until you know exactly what you need. Buying for general capability is the worst mistake you can make. Look for defined problems that need solving.
  • Not getting commitment from end users before choosing the BI solution – Make sure to get people’s opinions of the selections available as they’re the ones who will ultimately use it every day. Otherwise, the tools will be ineffective as no one will use the upgrades. They have to approve of what might become the new initiative, or they will never use it. Don’t tell them they have to use it, help them to understand why they’ll want to use it when it’s up and running.
  • Not considering security or legal requirements – Follow data governance when selecting new solutions. It protects both your company and customers.
  • Don’t get swayed by features and forget legacy systems and integration – Most companies look and rank BI software by the features available. This is wrong. You need to look and see which app will be able to integrate with what system you use already. There has to be an ability to work with all your other business systems or it won’t work correctly.

More BI Mistakes

  • Not choosing a program that can scale and adapt to change – Choosing a solution that isn’t flexible is one of the worst things you can do. Self-service analytics are now the norm, where they can work well with new data sources. The ability to scale is necessary is as the system grows, the software has to keep up. You don’t want to have to buy new software every time the business grows.
  • Not considering the mobile workforce – You have to consider mobility. Being able to use the new BI solution on a smart phone is a great advantage and allows for more productivity.
  • Rushing implementation – Never rush the upgrade. Mistakes are going to be made with possible cost increases.
  • Insufficient training and underestimating costs of training – A few weeks of training isn’t going to cut it with today’s BI systems. The systems in place now are very complex. End users need a lot more training to work them. There’s also the need for ongoing training to keep the end users in the loop for changes to the programs.
  • Not leveraging intelligence and reporting – If you’re going to collect all this data, then make sure to share, analyze and act on what is found. It’s a waste to buy the new BI solution if not used properly.

Uses for Upgrades

This software is used in many ways. It is used to build reports, find risks and opportunities and forecast trends. Don’t become complacent with pre-defined sets of reports. You’ll miss changes that are occurring in the business world.

 

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3 Challenges to Business Intelligence and Analytics Adoption

big data, challenges, business intelligence, BI, analytics

Business Intelligence and Analytics

What is the biggest challenge today for upgrading your business? You’ll find the answer through using tools enabling business intelligence (BI) and analytics strategies. It seems that businesses are looking to adopt BI and more advanced analytics to achieve bigger gains. Upper management needs to explore more information to gather key areas that they feel need improvement.

The Biggest Challenges:

  • Data Preparation – The ability to complete data management in putting together and cleaning data before compiling reports and analytics.
  • Skills and Leadership – Is there a structure focused on needs of both BI and analytics along with more complex methods?
  • Ease of Use – Can those who are less technically inclined be able to use the system?

Preparing Data

The biggest gaps are in data prep. It is more difficult and more complex than it seems. The size of the company and how they are using BI and analytics doesn’t matter. They all see big gaps in how they filter, transform and prepare their data. Good data gathering and compiling is completed. It helps find both relationships and potential outcomes quickly. The information found here will help improve your company’s productivity and build competitive advantages. Consider automation and self-service also for those in the agency who are less technically inclined. Analytics are behind BI. Improvements are needed to be able to prepare, augment and explore the data gathered. This will help your agency to find root causes and trends. You can then build and update predictive models through using machine learning.

Skills and Leadership

Skills and leadership are key too. Agencies strong in these areas still say that there are many challenges in innovation, creativity, and leadership. Shown executive support enforces the need for upgrades or change just will not happen. If there’s no strong vision and support at this level, the initiatives will fail or underperform. A leader needs to make sure that they openly show the value of success from the new initiatives.

Ease of Use

Overworked data scientists or analysts already in your company because of changes being implemented need help. In this case, it’s better to create self-service and interactive tools where everyone can find them. Nontechnical users will need the guidance, and instead of overworking your data scientists and analysts, this can help. There’s software built to aid building systems that can detect relationships, correlations, segments, and outliers. It could use natural language to create queries. It could present context-based narratives of important findings. All sorts of things could be created with the new software to help the organization.

Increasing adoption of BI and Analytics

  • Invest in data and data prep
  • Nurture culture, skills, and leadership
  • Keep self-service and Ease of Use in the Forefront

Conclusion

If the challenges of gathering and preparing data are not addressed, it will become more difficult to find a use for BI and analytics. If strong leadership isn’t used to make the employees excited to use the new technologies, the initiative will be a failure. And if ease of use with smart/automated capabilities isn’t used, it’ll hinder adoption of BI and more advanced analytics. Consider these things before upgrading your systems.

 

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5 Steps for Strategic Business Upgrade Planning

upgrade, system, planning, business planning, business upgrades, company, work, upgrade system,

A very exciting time in your company might be when you realize that you have to upgrade your systems to keep with the times. It can be very frustrating and can take some time too depending on what needs to be updated. There’s a lot that has to go into the thought process before starting…

Two Approaches

  • The company in question always has to have the latest and greatest, who change their systems as soon as upgrades become available.
  • The company in question goes through more traditional means. Why change what they have when it’s working perfectly fine? These companies upgrade only when forced to do so.

The upgrade plan has to focus on future growth and changes forecasted by the company. The question that needs to be asked when looking ahead is, how will the changes affect upgrade needs in the future?

Five Steps to Planning Upgrades

1. Categorize and Prioritize: Categories include

i. Client Computer Systems
ii. Peripherals
iii. Client Software
iv. Server hardware and software
v. Security
vi. Network devices
vii. Network Infrastructure

Here items can be picked and chosen as to what the organization decides to upgrade. In this if needed subcategories can be created in order to create a more organized plan.

2. Set Priorities: Prioritize based on the costs and benefits ratio. What items need to be upgraded first? Is it an urgent need or a want? Make sure to not upgrade needlessly, make sure that it’s really needed.

3. Consider Dependencies: When the company is upgrading their systems they need to take into consideration what might be dependent on others. This might create more upgrades in order for the system to work with the new equipment. Or if applications are being upgraded, the system might need to be upgraded in order to work with them.

4. Phased Rollout: Don’t rush it. Testing and discovering of bugs need to be worked out before starting to use the new system. After the tests are completed use small groups of employees to test the upgrades in the production environment. If there’s a learning curve use the fast learners first as they can then learn the new system and assist/teach the others when it rolls out.

5. Keep it Scalable: Write out the plan. Get input from other departments and different levels to help create the plan. Plans for expansion of the company and any restructuring needs to be taken into account here too.

Proper Planning

If the organization follows proper planning with scalability included in the process, it can create a very smooth upgrade environment for the company. It would help immensely as upgrading systems can be very costly and stressful if not done correctly. Never rush the process and take time to consider all options before jumping in.

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3 Phases of Business Analysis Verification Testing

test, work, , business analysis, business, complete, system, strategic planning, software

The first thing you should do after buying a product for the business analysis solution is to verify if the software will work with your vision.  Will it do what it is supposed to do?  When it is being verified the testing team who can be anyone from developers, QA and business analysts work with the software to make sure that it really works for what it was bought and/or created for.  There are many phases to be completed in order to ensure the new product will work well with your system.

The Test Phases

The Smoke Test comes before anything.  It’s a pretest to find out if full testing can begin.  This test shows simple failures that could keep further tests from being executed in the next 3 phases.

  1. Unit Test: Here every unit is tested separately to find any possible bugs before moving on.  It’s another name for the smoke test.  Don’t just have the development team test it here, but others to so there will be unbiased testing completed.
  2. Integration Test: This part makes sure that all the individual parts can work together; either as a subsystem or linked units.  Here you would want to find problems with how components will work together in the software architecture design.  This includes multiple levels of integration where subsystems might be brought in to see if they would work, then attached to larger subsystems when in compliance.  The development team and possibly business analysists work here.
  3. System Test: Here is where problems are found with how the new system meets users’ needs.  It’s ran through the entire system, auditing everything from linear perspective’s.  It’s the last chance before turning over to a user acceptance test, and verifies if the software meets original requirements.  The business analyst works here for the most part.

Other Tests to Be Completed

There are numerous other tests that have to be completed during these 3 phases.

  • Requirements validation test: Verifies system logic, making sure that it supports system analysis.
  • Regression Test: Retesting to ensure changes don’t break what is working.  There’s usually more than one test completed to make sure all the applications work.
  • Dynamic Test: Testing of the software in different circumstances.  There are 3 tests completed here:
    • The Performance Test: How fast can the system complete functions?
    • The Stress Test: Push the software to its limits to see how it handles levels of users, rates of input and speed of response.
    • Volume Test: Can the new software handle growth projections?
  • Security Test
  • Installation Test
  • Configuration Test
  • Usability Test

Why Test and a Way To Help Implement

With all these tests completed it will help you to not have problems down the road.  There’s a need to make sure that everything will work before turning it loose for everyone to use in your company or sell online to your customers.  Click here to get an awesome partition assistant from AOMEI to help maximize disk space and improve the performance of your computer(s).  This will be needed when growing your system, implementing new programs and applications.  The best part of this is that it has the Windows to Go Creator which would help immensely in the long run too.

 

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Enterprise Agility, Digital Options and IT

enterprise agility, digital options, measurement, information technology, IT,

Define Enterprise Agility

To be able to operate and be strategic, there are tons of factors to consider.  Hyper-competition, higher demands from customers, advances in tech and changes in regulations have to be considered when upgrading.  There’s something called enterprise agility.  It’s comprised of two things. Being able to sense what is going on and respond to it.  The timelier the response, the more likely the company will succeed in difficult times.  Dynamic capabilities are included here.  One has to consider how to build the new system that will respond to the new environment.  In order to keep up with competition capabilities have to be able to adapt to new changes.

Market orientation deals with market intelligence focusing on new and current customer needs.  The information gathered will be spread across all departments so there can be company-wide responsiveness to changes.  Absorptive capacity deals with how well the company assimilates, transforms and uses the knowledge gathered.  Strategic flexibility is how well the agency manages both economic and political risks to market threats.  It also looks for future opportunities.  The flexibility has to include both reactive and proactive approaches to problems.  Organizations need to be watchful for and respond to competitors’ actions.  They need to look at consumer preferences.  There has to be a focus on economic shifts.  The agency needs to look out for  changes in regulations and advances in technology too.

The Role of IT

The role information technology (IT) plays in this is very important.  Responses are completed through direct and indirect means of digital options.  Through direct means IT can anticipate and sense changes dealing with businesses.  IT systems help as sheer volume of information processed goes further than can be handled otherwise.  Indirect means are more pronounced though.  This is where product development, manufacturing and supply chains add to performance of the organization.

Digital options can be considered indirect too due to them being work processes and knowledge systems.  Knowledge reach is the comprehension and accessibility of codified knowledge available.  If the system is built correctly it can help companies to gather and use the knowledge gained.  Knowledge richness is when IT gives out high-quality information in a timely manner.  IT also reviews real-time pattern recognition and monitors data.  It helps create strategic scenarios assisting strategic decision making.  Process reach is when IT integrates customers, suppliers and partners internally.  The richness of these processes are improved by quicker timeliness of delivery.  They become more accurate and relevant.

Conclusion

Depending on how the new systems are deployed and managed, IT could hurt as well as help businesses.  The older the technology being used means responses could be limited by the range available.  Everything would have to be updated, not just programming.  Systems might restrict the ability to retrieve and interpret data being gathered for analyzing.  Or processes could be incompatible with new systems.  This would mean that they would have to be upgraded.  It’s up to the firm as to how well IT is going to work for them if at all.  Agility is the ability to respond quickly to change that comes up.  The company has to understand the updates in order to create and implement them correctly.  If not, they could fall behind from their competition even more.

 

 

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What are Information Systems? Why so Needed?

Define Information Systems

What exactly is an Information System (IS)?  Let’s look at the definition here…an information systems focus on networks of hardware, software that people and organizations use daily to handle their data and information.  These components are used in order to gather, analyze, store and disseminate information.  The information in turn helps to support strategic decisions being made for the agency.

Walmart Example

As for a competitive advantage, it can go either way. It seems that there’s an ongoing debate as to how much of an advantage IS gives, if at all.  But as an example, Walmart has used it to a great advantage.  One key to success for them was implementing a brand new supply-chain management system.  It’s unique for them only to where suppliers can go in and review how well their products are selling at Walmart, in any of their stores at any location.   Suppliers can petition them if they feel products are being sold to quickly so inventory levels can be increased for their products.  It’s pretty interesting how it all works…so Walmart can drive prices down and respond to the market more quickly due to this new management system.

The Main Goal

The main goal of IS is to be able to change data into information that can be used in strategic decision making.  Databases are what is considered collections of related information.  Examples of this are MySQL and Microsoft Access, where data is inputted and organized into records as one example.  A database has to be created in order for an IS to be built that will work correctly.  The question is, where can big data be collected, sorted out and put into reports?

Competitive Advantage

Competitive advantage is when said company can sustain profits over average for the industry they’re in.  Differentiation comes to play also.  The key is to learn how to use information systems to build competitive advantage.  This is where SISP comes to play.  The information system has to try to do one or more of the following:

  1. Deliver products or services at lower cost
  2. Deliver products/services differentiated from others
  3. Assist companies to focus on specific markets
  4. Allows for innovation

Examples of IS falling into this category are:

  1. Electric Data Interchange – Integrate supply chain electronically
  2. Collaborative Systems – Google Drive, Microsoft SharePoint, or Cisco WebEx
  3. Decision Support Systems – Helps companies to make strategic decisions

Increased Difference

It has been shown through studies that information technology (IT) has assisted in increasing differences between companies instead of reducing them.  Technology has sped up and heightened the amounts of differences.  It also helps with increasing good management abilities in organizations.  Through figuring out the right types of innovations to include with the upgrades, it can greatly increase competitive advantage in their industry.

Questions to Answer

What the company in question has to answer before upgrading anything though is, what exactly has to be changed in order to allow for competitive advantages?  Is it the hardware that needs to be upgraded?  CPU’s hard drives, devices?  Or does the software have to be upgraded?  Which new programs need to be implemented and to which department?  What languages do the programs need to be written in?  What kind of databases will be used?  Are they going to create all new programs tailored specifically for them and maybe suppliers like Walmart did?  These are just some of the questions that have to be answered before they begin anything, or there will be a mess of confusion at some point.